The first schools in Virginia were provided by churches. In 1870, a statewide public school system was established, but with separation of black and white pupils codified in Virginia law. One-room school houses cropped up throughout the county until school consolidation began around 1910. Few schools were well funded, and local residents often had to chip in. Schools for black children in Elliston and Shawsville benefited from the Julius Rosenwald fund. Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck, & Co., established the fund to help construct thousands of standardized school buildings throughout the South. Montgomery County closed these schools in the 1960 following the Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision and the end of school segregation.